This post really wouldn't be complete without a dictionary definition, so here it is:
1755–65; < Latin insurgent- (stem of insurgēns ) present participle of insurgere: to get up, ascend, rebel. 1. a person who rises in forcible opposition to lawful authority, especially a person who engages in armed resistance to a government or to the execution of its laws; rebel. 2. a member of a section of a political party that revolts against the methods or policies of the party. 3. one that acts contrary to the established leadership (as of a political party, union, or corporation) or its decisions and policies 4. (international law) a person or group that rises in revolt against an established government or authority but whose conduct does not amount to belligerency Not all of those definitions are equally applicable to the book-- some are more spot-on than others. But I won't tell you which ones yet.
[source via p2p]